Michael Rugg obtained his PhD in 1979. Following a postdoctoral year at the University of York, he was appointed to a lectureship in psychology at the University of St Andrews, where he became Professor of Psychology and Head of School in 1992. In 1998 he moved to the Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, University College London as Professor of Cognitive Neuroscience and Wellcome Trust Principal Research Fellow. His principal research interests are the cognitive and neurological basis of human memory and the non-invasive investigation of human brain function through the use of electroencephalography and functional neuroimaging. During 1998 and 1999 he served on the Department of Health Working Group on Organophosphates.